Health problem of piles

Piles or Haemorrhoid, are swellings that contain inflated blood vessels that are found inside or around the bottom (the rectum and anus). The haemorrhoidal veins are located in the lowest part of the rectum and the anus. Occasionally, when these veins swell, the vein walls become stretched, thin, and become painful by passing bowel movements. Haemorrhoids are categorized into two general categories these are internal and external.

Internal haemorrhoids lie inside the rectum that person cannot see or feel them. They do not usually hurt because there are few pain-sensing nerves in the rectum.

Bleeding may be the only sign that confirm internal piles. Sometimes internal haemorrhoids prolapse, or enlarge and project outside the anal sphincter. Prolapsed haemorrhoids may hurt because they become irritated by rubbing from clothing and sitting. They usually withdraw into the rectum on their own; if they do not, they can be mildly pushed back into place.

External haemorrhoids lie within the anus and are often painful. If an external haemorrhoid enlarges to the outside, normally in passing a stool, person can see and feel it.

Blood clots sometimes form within prolapsed external haemorrhoids that causessevere pain. This condition is called a thrombosis. If an external haemorrhoid becomes thrombosed, it can look rather frightening, turning purple or blue, and could possibly bleed. In spite of their appearance, thrombosed haemorrhoids are not considered as severe and will resolve themselves in about a week. If the pain is intolerable, the thrombosed haemorrhoid can be removed with surgery, which stops the pain.

Anal bleeding and pain of any sort is disturbing and should be examined. It can specify a life-threatening condition, such as colorectal cancer. Haemorrhoids are the main cause of anal bleeding and rarely is it dangerous.

Causes of Piles:

Piles may occur whenthe blood vessels around the anus and in the rectum stretch under pressure and may swell or bulge. Inflamed veins (hemorrhoids) can develop when pressure increases in the lower rectum. This condition happen due to:

  • Chronic constipation
  • Chronic diarrhoea
  • Lifting heavy weights
  • Pregnancy
  • Straining when passing a stool.
  • Sedentary occupation and habits (Malhotra, 1998)

Symptoms of Piles:

Most haemorrhoids are mild and do not show symptoms. When health condition is severe, patient complaints following symptoms:

  1. Bleeding after passing a stool (the blood will be bright red) and itchy bottom.
  2. A lump hanging down outside of the anus, which may need to be pushed back in after passing a stool.

Main symptoms of piles are as follows:

  1. Bright red bleeding from the anus. Blood may strip the bowel movement or the toilet paper.
  2. Sensitivity or pain during bowel movements.
  3. Painful swelling or a lump near the anus.
  4. Anal itching.
  5. A mucous anal discharge.

Piles during pregnancy:

Pregnant women get piles because the volume of blood circulating round body increases. At the same time, high levels of the hormone progesterone relax the walls of blood vessels. The veins below uterus (womb) are more likely to become swollen and stretched as the weight of growing baby puts pressure on them. This is the major cause for pregnant women to more prone to piles and varicose veins. Pregnant women normally complaint for constipation that can also cause piles.

Piles in children: Haemorrhoid is also experienced by children. There are many factors responsible for piles in children such as Sitting on hard surfaces for longer period. Children also suffer from constipation and digestive problems due to unhealthy diet which leads to strain in passing stool and result in piles. Hemorrhoids also develop in children due to the development of diarrhoea, and infections.

When to seek medical advice:

Patients having piles must seek medical advice when they have bleeding, feel a lump in the area, or have rectal pain. They must also visit to doctor when in passing stools, there is maroon in colour or tarry in colour, a sign of bleeding.

Diagnosis: A doctor perform physical examination, examining the patient's anus to confirm the condition of pile. For internal hemorrhoids, the doctor may perform a digital rectal examination (DRE) or use a proctoscope, a hollow tube fitted with a light. The proctoscope permits the doctor to see the anal canal and take a small tissue sample from inside the rectum, which can be sent to the lab for analysis.

Treatment for Piles:

For piles, general practitioner advises Creams, ointments and suppositories which can help in relieving swelling and inflammation symptoms in the short term. Doctor may recommend corticosteroid cream for severe inflammation.

Doctors also recommend some lifestyle changes which are as under:


Piles can be caused by excessive straining when doing bowel movements, which is the result of constipation. A change in diet can help keep the stools regular and soft. This involves eating more fibre, such as fruit and vegetables, or switching your cereal breakfast to bran.

Person is advised to drink more water to avoid constipation which can result in piles. Some experts say too much caffeine is not good.

Body weight:

If the patient is overweight, losing weight may help reduce the incidence and severity of haemorrhoids.

Surgery is done for particularly large piles, or grades 3 or 4 haemorrhoids. Usually, surgery is used if other procedures were not effective. Sometimes surgery is done on an outpatient basis. The patient goes home after the procedure.

To prevent piles condition, people are advised to practice better posture, particularly when sitting. This is to avoid having one part of one’s rear end bear the brunt of the body’s weight for a long time while sitting. Other factors helps in preventing piles is to wear more comfortable clothing and evade too tight and constricting.

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