Parkinson ailment is a type of brain disorder which occurs when certain nerve cells in substantia nigra die or become damaged. Parkinson's disease is characterized as constant, progressive, degenerative disorder of basal ganglia or nigrostriatal pathway. These cells produce a essential chemical such as dopamine which allows smooth, coordinated function of the body's muscles and movement. When most of these nerve cells damaged, patient exhibits symptoms of Parkinson disease. Though symptoms of Parkinson's disease may appear at any age but it usually attacks in old age and slowly progresses over a period of time. People under 30 do not have this disease but risk increases with age. It is predictable that 5% to 10% of patients experience symptoms before the age of 40.
Patients of this disease show symptoms such as tremor of the hands, arms, legs, jaw, and face; rigidity or stiffness of the limbs and trunk; bradykinesia or slowness of movement, and postural instability or impaired balance and coordination. Autonomic dysfunctions may also occur. Many patients experience some variations in their symptoms throughout the day. Secondary symptoms are constipation, difficulty in swallowing, coughing, or drooling, excessive salivation, excessive sweating, loss of bladder and/or bowel control, loss of intellectual capacity.In later stage of this disease, patients shoe anxiety, depression, isolation, scaling, dry skin on the face and scalp, slow response to questions, Small, cramped handwriting, Soft, whispery voice.
Patients of Parkinson's disease require medicines as it progresses and patient develops bothersome side effects of medicine such as abnormal movements, pain and tonic contraction of limbs and it is observed that after some times medication is not helpful. Idiopathic Parkinson's disease is the most common type of Parkinson disease. It is a group of movement disorders that have analogous features and symptoms. Parkinson's disorder can occur in both male and female but men are at greater risk of this disease than women.
According to medical sources, genetic tendency for Parkinson's disease is possible, with the start of disease and Person who experiences as trauma, other illness, or exposure to an environmental toxin may grip under this disease. Exposure to an environmental toxin, such as a pesticide, that inhibits dopamine production and produces free radicals and oxidation damage may be involved. Several genes that cause symptoms in younger patients have been recognized.
Doctors do diagnosis on the basis of symptoms and excluding other disorders that produce similar symptoms. After a systematic neurological exam and medical history, the neurologist may recomend computerized tomography (CT scan) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan) for complete diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. These test may help in deciding whether patients are suffering from Parkinson's disease or they may have other disorders such as brain tumor, stroke that produce parkinsonian symptoms.
It is depressive that this disease has no treatment. All medical hospitals or treatment centers can provide therapy to alleviate symptoms. In some severe cases, a surgical procedure may offer the greatest benefit. It is assumed that parkinson's disease patients can be treated with the help of Stereotactic Neurosurgery.
Medication and dose depends on the individual. The doctor keeps in mind various factors such as severity of symptoms, age, and presence of other medical conditions. As the disease become worse, drug dosages may have to be modified and medication routines changed. Sometimes a combination of drugs is given.
To treat patients, often surgery is done to control symptoms and improve quality of life when medication is ineffective or when medication has side effects, such as jerking and dyskinesias, which are unbearable. Surgery can not be done for all patients. If a patient never responded to, or responded badly to levodopa/carbidopa, surgery is not useful. Only about 10% of Parkinson's patients are suitable for surgery. Every surgical procedure carries intrinsic risk. There is the risk that symptoms will not get better or will deteriorate following the operation. There are three surgical procedures for treating Parkinson's disease: ablative surgery, stimulation surgery or deep brain stimulation (DBS), and transplantation or restorative surgery.
There are many modalities and nutritional supplements which can ease symptoms and advance quality of life. It is vital that patients inform their physician of the-counter medications, herbs, or other supplements that they use on a normal basis, because they may interact with medication and because drug dosages may require to be adjusted. Physical therapy can help support and tone underused muscles, and gives inflexible muscles a better range of motion. The main purpose of medical practitioner is to facilitate build body strength, improve balance, overcome walk problems, and improve speaking and swallowing.
Patients are advised to do simple physical activity such as walking, gardening, and swimming. These exercises can improve one's sense of well-being. Gentle, soothing massage techniques may provide relief from muscle rigidity and may have some neuromuscular benefit. Support groups provide a helpful, sympathetic environment in which patients and their relatives can ask queries about Parkinson's, express their frustrations, and get guidance about coping strategies.
Note: This information is just for knowledge of disease. If such type of medical condition develops, consult your doctor.