Government Health Policies in India
Government Health Schemes in India
Having embraced a socialist type of public administration after Independence, governments have tried to usher in an equitable growth across the country by opening up avenues to realise the full potential of its citizens.
On the health front, policies were aimed at improving facilities in the rural areas and expanding the skilled manpower to deliver quality medical services.
For example, the National Health Policy 2002 was aimed at ushering in an “acceptable standard of health” for the general population.
Keeping this in mind, the Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-12) had set the goal of achieving good health for people, especially the poor.
A holistic approach was adopted which included improvements in personalised care, public health, sanitation, clean drinking water, access to safe food and knowledge of hygienic practices.
Government 12th Five Year Plan(2012-17)
The steering committee on health in its report has recommended the 12th Plan should focus on making of the system being able to respond to the healthcare needs of households.
Some of the major targets set for achievement by the end of Twelfth Plan period are:
- Reduction of infant mortality rate (IMR) to 25:
India is projected to have an IMR of 38 by 2015 and 34 by 2017. One of the targets of MDG (millennium development goals) is reducing IMR to 27 by 2015 which would require further acceleration of this historical rate of decline. If this accelerated rate is sustained, the country can achieve an IMR of 25 by 2017.
- Reduction of maternal mortality ratio (MMR) to 100:
At the 5.5% rate of decline per annum, India would have an MMR of 143 by 2015 and 127 by 2017. An achievement of the MDG of reducing MMR to 109 by 2015 would require a further speed up of the decline. If this is sustained, then we can achieve an MMR of 100 by 2017.
- Reduction of total fertility rate (TFR) to 2.1:
India is on track for the achievement of a TFR target of 2.1 by 2017, which is necessary to achieve net replacement level of unity, and realise the goal of the National Health Policy, 1983 and National Population Policy of 2000.
- Reproductive and child health (RCH) services:
The government has found that it has tackle the social determinants of health to further consolidate the gains made in RCH services. However, the maternal and perinatal mortality is highest in population sub-groups which are poorer, more malnourished, less educated, have lower age of parity and have too many children or too soon.
The Health and Family Welfare division conducts working group discussions with states for finalising their annual plans.
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